These were small wrinkled 5 mm wide balls at the end of stems of a casuarina tree. At least one small branch had several of these with holes ( parasitoid ?). Most were dry but a single fresh green gall on the same branch had a knobbly surface. When dissected the gall showed several thick-walled locules.
These look similar to galls seen on C.glauca induced by the gall wasp Selitrichodes. I would greatly appreciate help with identifying the gall inducer and the Casuarina species. Thanks.
Gall caused by a rust fungus, about 10cm across, on a large Acacia Mearnsii.
Update: Uromycladium tepperianum has been split into at least 16 different species each infecting a different range of Acacia species. The one on Acacia mearnsii is called Uromycladium murphyi. See "Diversity of gall-forming rusts (Uromycladium, Pucciniales) on Acacia in Australia" by C. Doungsa-ard et al, Persoonia vol. 40, 2018 pages 221–238.
More bud galls on Black Wattle. I have only seen this sort once. I think they might be caused by Asphondylia glabrigerminis. Species is described in P Kolesik, RJ Adair, G Eick (2010) "Six new species of Asphondylia (Diptera:Cecidomyiidae) damaging flower buds and fruit of Australian Acacia (Mimosaceae", Systematic Entomology 35:250–267.
There are some poorly reproduced photos in Adair, R.J., Burgess, T., Serdani, M. and Barber, P. (2009) Fungal associations in Asphondylia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) galls from Australia and South Africa: implications for biological control of invasive acacias. Fungal Ecology, 2 (3). pp. 121-134.
This eucalyptus tree with slightly pendulous branches and small clusters of creamy white flowers had delicate young leaves with their tips curled into thick cups. These cups appeared to have a membranous pale or brown lid (pic 5). Some of these cups had ants clustering around them as in pic 4. On opening one of these lidded "cups', I found a 3 mm psyllid nymph with small red wide-set eyes, orange thorax and green abdomen. Wings buds were dark with a white substance stuck to them. The tree had several young leaves with these galls.
Spotted on a box gum ( ? Eucalyptus microcarpa) in a bushland reserve.
I am not sure of the relationship between the ants and this species of psyllid. The gall-forming behaviour seems similar to Trioza species of psyllid.
My thanks to Ken Walker for confirming that this is Trioza ( species not known).
These are scale insect galls seen on the adaxial side of the leaf . The broad-based conical outgrowths are female galls. There were two of these, one at the base of the leaf base and another along the main vein. the gall was purplish and had a ring near the base. One of the galls showed two openings and the other a single smooth circular orifice. Also on the leaf surface were many upright tubular structures with apical openings with crenulated margins. These were male galls and they were tinged red.
Spotted on a eucalyptus tree - ? species. Nature reserve.
My thanks to Dr L.Cook for confirming genus and identifying the species.
Apiomorpha urnalis is a woody gall produced by a parasitic hemipteran. The female inside the large gall remains physically underdeveloped and never independent of her host plant. The dissection shows the larviform adult female.
These sub-conical galls with apical holes are female galls of a gall inducing scale insect. The female galls showed enlarged leaf glands. Some leaves also showed small cylindrical galls with apical openings- these were the males of the same species of scale insect (pic 3). Pic 2 shows galls of both sexes on the one leaf.
The underside of the leaf showed slight discolouration and minimal waxy bloom (pic 4).
Spotted on juvenile leaves of a eucalyptus tree (species unknown) in a nature reserve.
A lobulated gall probably involving terminal leaf buds. the galls were green and red and glossy. they were small, about 5 to 7mm wide. A dissected dry gall ( pics 4 & 5) showed thickened concentric layers of tissue. There was no sign of any life inside the gall.
Spotted on a prickly tea-tree (Leptospermum juniperinum).
This gall is formed by a scale insect of the genus Eremococcus. My thanks to L.Cook for the ID.
Mountain Hickory Wattle Leaf Gall
Several leaves of this young acacia shrub had circular to oval patches of thickened, firm, raised growths with brown encrustation on their pale convex surfaces (pics 1 to 3). The growths were concave on the underside with a outer circle of similar brown crust (pic 4). These patches did not occur in any particular part of the leaf - some involved the mid vein and others anywhere on the leaf lamina. A dissection of one of these structures revealed just thick tough plant tissue.
Spotted on young Mountain Hickory Wattle ( Acacia obliquinervia) shrubs on Mt Donna Buang (1250 masl)
Architect of gall unknown.
This is a female gall of a Scale Insect - Apiomorpha spp. This gall is on a lower branch of a Eucalyptus globulus. The second photo shows the whole branch, with this female gall at the right of picture, and the male galls on the leaves at the left of picture. Identified by Lyn Cook as Apiomorpha conica.