Looking like a 5 mm piece of bird-dropping, this little black and white capsule is a cocoon of an ichneumon wasp. It was attached to the leaves on this young tree and wrapped around it was the skin of its larval host - a lepidopteran. Mimicking bird-dropping and wrapping the skin of the larval host over and around is, apparently, one of the many strategies employed by ichneumonids to escape attacks from hyperparasitoids. Spotted on a young black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) in a nature reserve.
Bird's-nest Fungus growing on eucalyptus mulch.
Black-coloured spores are produced inside egg-like "peridioles" contained in the open nest-like structure. The peridioles are scattered by rain-drops falling into the "nest" (see first photo, top-left - where one peridiole has been scattered to the edge of the "nest"/cup.)