Galls of Victoria

Galls of Victoria

by Leuba Ridgway


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All plant galls of Victoria. Created by hemipterans, fungi, dipterans,nematodes, etc.


23 items (100 per page)

  • Apiomorpha conica

    21 Mar 2018-37.6,144.9Jeff Triplett

    On the same plant as previous two posts in galls group. From information recieved, the gall on the left contains a male and the gall on the right contains a female.

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  • Unidentified

    21 Mar 2018-37.6,144.9Jeff Triplett

    Stem galls about 20mm long on a shrub-sized Manna Gum. For other galls on same plant see http://natureshare.org.au/observations/5ab30202ed2a896baf0061c6

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    1. Leuba Ridgway  I like this one. Hope we get n ID.

      Reply • 30 Mar

      • Jeff Triplett  Could this not be the female of Apiomorpha conica? I chose this photo because there were a pair of galls, some others on the same plant looked quite similar but were definately more ovoid. I will post another photo.

        Reply • 30 Mar

  • Apiomorpha conica

    21 Mar 2018-37.6,144.9Jeff Triplett

    Leaf galls about 10mm long on a shrub-sized Manna Gum. There were lots of galls on this plant, of two different types. Will post a photo of the other type as a separate observation.

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    1. Leuba Ridgway  Apiomorpha conica species id suggested

      Reply • 30 Mar

      • LynCook  I agree with ID of galls of females.

        Reply • 28 May

    2. Leuba Ridgway  These are male galls of the scale insect. Family Eriococcidae. Female galls are larger and ovoid -https://natureshare.org.au/observations?species=Apiomorpha+conica

      Reply • 30 Mar

  • Unidentified

    21 Mar 2018-37.6,144.9Jeff Triplett

    These galls are on the same shrub-sized Yellow Box as my previous observation in the galls group. The old galls are still there but this new form of gall covers all new shoots.

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    1. LynCook  The galls of females are a bit of a weird shape because they have an inquiline living in them: a galler galling the gall. Probably a wasp but could be a fly. There are some tubular galls of males on the galls of females.

      Reply • 28 May

  • Apiomorpha munita

    28 Nov 2017-37.6,144.9Jeff Triplett

    A very confusing photo of some stem galls on a young (about 1m high) Yellow Box, one branch of which was almost completely covered in galls. The red is obviously a gall, but the green blades that look like leaves are parts of another type of gall. Of course there are the usual attending ants, but then if you look closer there are orange dots which are perhaps eggs of some kind, and what look like early stage Hemiptera nymphs. Are these nymphs associated with the gall in same way, and if so how? If they are a gall forming species shouldn't they emerge as adults? Wish I had the equipment to be able to watch what is going on for a few days.

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    1. David Francis  Interesting. I wonder if the eggs/bugs are just feeding/sheltering between the galls caused by a wasp, mite etc.?

      Reply • 30 Nov 2017

    2. Leuba Ridgway  I am no expert on galls but the galls both green and the cylindrical purple ones might be made by the gall-inducing scale insect Apiomorpha. The species, probably in your spotting, have male galls (purple ones) growing on female galls (green blade-like growths). I hope an expert has a look at this -very interesting indeed ! I will send you a link which illustrates what I am trying to say. The nymphs are plant hopper nymphs, and to my knowledge they do not induce galls. Not sure about the yellow eggs-look like psyllid eggs.

      Reply • 03 Dec 2017

    3. Leuba Ridgway  http://www.reparativevegetation.com.au/9/tree-pests-and-diseases-gallery

      Reply • 03 Dec 2017

    4. Jeff Triplett  I had not heard of female galls growning on male galls. I went back and had another look. The galls are all still there although the red ones look different now. For the particular gall I photographed before I cannot tell what is growing on what, but I found some red galls that were definatately growing on the green horned galls, and others that appeared to be growing directly from the stem. I have added photos of each. The greened horned galls are more common than the red ones.

      Reply • 02 Jan

    5. Jeff Triplett  Note that the yellow spots are still there, so perhaps they are not eggs. Another interesting thing I forgot to mention is that there are lots of young yellow box in this area but I have not seen the red galls anywhere except on this tree. The green horned ones I have seen before although not common.

      Reply • 02 Jan

    6. Leuba Ridgway  The horned ones are Apiomorpha munita. As I mentioned, the male galls of the species grow on female galls. Dr Lyn Cook is the expert - hope she gets to see this.

      Reply • 03 Jan

    7. David Francis  Apiomorpha munita added.

      Reply • 04 Jan

      • Jeff Triplett  Looked up a few web pages and it is actually Apiomorpha munita tereticornuta. The other subspecies does not occur on Eucalyptus meliodora.

        Reply • 04 Jan

        • David Francis  Apiomorpha munita infrasp. tereticornuta added (AFD/ALA has it as infrasp., not subsp. I'm not sure of the difference.

          Reply • 04 Jan

          • Jeff Triplett  I am certainly no expert on scientific naming, but if you believe wikipedia then ALA is wrong on two counts. First, infrasp. (and subsp. for that matter) applies to plants and apiomorpha is not a plant. Secondly the term infrasp. should not be part of a name, it is a collective term for the ranks below species level, ie subspecies, variety etc. But maybe galls are a special case - the gall forms are different, but does this imply different subspecies of the insect?

            Reply • 06 Jan

    8. David Francis  infrasp. deleted

      Reply • 06 Jan

      • Jeff Triplett  I understand you are trying to match the ala database, but are you sure there is not an error in their database? If you look at classification under Apiomorpha munita it definitely shows three subspecies. The only place the infrasp. appears is if you look at the classification tab for the subspecies. Australian faunal directory also shows three subspecies.

        Reply • 06 Jan

        • David Francis  Yes, I see that AFD shows it as subspecies. Apiomorpha munita tereticornuta now added to database.

          Reply • 06 Jan

  • Schedotrioza spp. Gall-insect Psyllid

    28 Sep 2017-37.9,145.3Leuba Ridgway

    These were attractive thin-walled urn-shaped galls that appeared to be about 10 to 12 mm tall. The apical openings through which the adults would have emerged had jagged edges which were a deep pink. This colour bled into the pale green bodies and bases of the galls. Spotted on the upper surface of eucalyptus leaves - Gum tree species not known.

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    Cathy Powers starred this.

  • Schedotrioza spp. Gall-insect Psyllid

    15 Jan 2016-37.9,145.3Leuba Ridgway

    These small dry star-bursts of psyllid galls looked like rusted metal flowers stuck to the upper surfaces of gum leaves. These eruptions looked a lot "neater" than some of the galls induced by these little hemipterans. Spotted on what looked like Silver-leaf Stringy Bark ( E.cinerea) in a reserve.

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    1. Reilly Beacom  Hi Leuba, I cannot say if it is correct id but I have added Schedotrioza

      Reply • 18 Jan 2016

      • Leuba Ridgway  Thank you Reilly. I am fairly certain that it is Schedotrioza genus. Not sure of the species.

        Reply • 18 Jan 2016

  • Trioza spp.

    18 Oct 2015-37.9,145.3Leuba Ridgway

    This eucalyptus tree with slightly pendulous branches and small clusters of creamy white flowers had delicate young leaves with their tips curled into thick cups. These cups appeared to have a membranous pale or brown lid (pic 5). Some of these cups had ants clustering around them as in pic 4. On opening one of these lidded "cups', I found a 3 mm psyllid nymph with small red wide-set eyes, orange thorax and green abdomen. Wings buds were dark with a white substance stuck to them. The tree had several young leaves with these galls. Spotted on a box gum ( ? Eucalyptus microcarpa) in a bushland reserve. I am not sure of the relationship between the ants and this species of psyllid. The gall-forming behaviour seems similar to Trioza species of psyllid. My thanks to Ken Walker for confirming that this is Trioza ( species not known).

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    1. Chris Lindorff  Hi Leuba. I have added this name to the database. Thanks for the interesting information. Cheers. Chris.

      Reply • 01 Nov 2015

    2. David Francis  Trioza spp. species id suggested

      Reply • 28 Dec 2016

  • Tanyscelis maculata

    27 Feb 2015-37.9,145.3Leuba Ridgway

    These are scale insect galls seen on the adaxial side of the leaf . The broad-based conical outgrowths are female galls. There were two of these, one at the base of the leaf base and another along the main vein. the gall was purplish and had a ring near the base. One of the galls showed two openings and the other a single smooth circular orifice. Also on the leaf surface were many upright tubular structures with apical openings with crenulated margins. These were male galls and they were tinged red. Spotted on a eucalyptus tree - ? species. Nature reserve. My thanks to Dr L.Cook for confirming genus and identifying the species.

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    1. Chris Lindorff  Hi Leuba. I've added this species name to the database and included Opisthoscelis maculata as a synonym. The ALA is yet to pick up on this new genus (published in 2010). Thanks. Chris.

      Reply • 02 Apr 2015

    2. Suzanne Jones  So unusual. Very interesting!

      Reply • 03 Apr 2015

  • Nambouria spp.

    16 Apr 2011-37.8,145.1Martin Lagerwey

    The parasitic wasp called Nambouria xanthops has formed this rooster comb gall. http://www.nzffa.org.nz/farm-forestry-model/the-essentials/forest-health-pests-and-diseases/Pests/Nambouria-xanthops

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    1. Chris Lindorff  Hi Martin. I've added Nambouria spp. Haven't been able to find the name N. xanthops on any Australian directory, but I'll keep trying. Perhaps you can point me in the right direction. Cheers. Chris.

      Reply • 06 Mar 2015

  • Apiomorpha spp. Apiomorpha urnalis

    14 Apr 2011-37.8,145.3Martin Lagerwey

    Apiomorpha urnalis is a woody gall produced by a parasitic hemipteran. The female inside the large gall remains physically underdeveloped and never independent of her host plant. The dissection shows the larviform adult female.

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    1. Chris Lindorff  Hi Martin. Apiomorpha urnalis has now been added. Nice cut-away view of the larva.

      Reply • 06 Mar 2015

    2. Martin Lagerwey  btw, the cut-away is the adult female who never develops any further

      Reply • 07 Mar 2015

  • Unidentified

    05 Mar 2015-37.9,145.3Leuba Ridgway

    The main picture shows a dissected gall exposing larvae at various stages of development with pale pink segmented bodies and a few eggs (pic 4). The galls were about 3 to 4 mm wide, shiny and green with knobbly tips. They seemed to arise from tips of leaflets (pinnules) and involved most of the leaflet (pic 2). Several of these galls were seen on the pinnae. Pic 4 shows a developing gall on a leaflet. The larvae seemed to have segments differentiated into thoracic and abdominal segments and there appeared to be three pairs of legs (pic 6) suggesting that these were mature and close to pupation ?. I assume these are midge galls and would greatly appreciate confirmation. - ? Austroacacidiplosis botrycephalae Spotted on Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii) in a nature reserve ( Glenfern Valley Bushland Reserve)

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  • Unidentified

    17 Feb 2011-37.8,145.3Martin Lagerwey

    A tree laden with pendulose galls over more than 75% of its leaves. These are produced by a small scale insect (hemipteran). A busy wasp was taking full advantage by laying eggs into the deep gall chambers.

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    1. David Francis  Great capture!

      Reply • 06 Mar 2015

    2. Mark Ridgway  Great to have a record of what these little wasps use. This looks like 'Callibracon capitator' but Peter Chew has them parasitising Cerambycidae so I guess there are other Callibracon sp that look similar. I think I've seen variable ovipositor lengths also...

      Reply • 06 Mar 2015

  • Unidentified

    11 Sep 2013-37.8,145.3Martin Lagerwey

    A stem gall produced by small wasps. These have been dissected to reveal the orange pupae and black wasps with elaborate antennae.

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  • Unidentified

    31 Mar 2011-37.8,145.4Martin Lagerwey

    red galls like a bunch of tiny grapes along the mid-vein of a eucalyptus leafleaf

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  • Fergusonina spp.

    13 Feb 2014-37.4,144.6Martin Lagerwey

    These green grape galls are possibly produced by a parasitic fly in the Fergusonina genus. http://www.bowerbird.org.au/observations/2665

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    1. Chris Lindorff  Hi Martin. I've now added Fergusonina spp.

      Reply • 10 Mar 2015

  • Chalcidoidea spp.

    08 Sep 2013-38.2,145.1Martin Lagerwey

    Galls are produced by Chalcidoidea wasps which are tiny black wasps with elaborate antennae.

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    1. Chris Lindorff  Hi Martin. There is a name in NS: Chalcidoidea spp.

      Reply • 10 Mar 2015

  • Fergusonina spp.

    24 Sep 2011-37.8,145.3Martin Lagerwey

    This fly is Fergusonina spp. A small parasitic fly lays eggs while the leaves are still in bud. The pupae were collected and flies emerged in a few days.

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    1. Chris Lindorff  Hi Martin. I'm having trouble finding a reference to this species. Google returns a couple of results only, but returns results for Fergusinia flies also. I'm particularly looking for the classification in order to add this species. Cheers.

      Reply • 06 Mar 2015

  • Opisthoscelis beardsleyi

    26 Sep 2014-37.9,145.2Leuba Ridgway

    These sub-conical galls with apical holes are female galls of a gall inducing scale insect. The female galls showed enlarged leaf glands. Some leaves also showed small cylindrical galls with apical openings- these were the males of the same species of scale insect (pic 3). Pic 2 shows galls of both sexes on the one leaf. The underside of the leaf showed slight discolouration and minimal waxy bloom (pic 4). Spotted on juvenile leaves of a eucalyptus tree (species unknown) in a nature reserve.

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    1. Chris Lindorff  Hi Leuba. I have added Opisthoscelis beardsleyi to the database. Very interesting information in your description. Thanks. Chris.

      Reply • 03 Mar 2015

      • Leuba Ridgway  Thank you for the update and for your comments Chris.

        Reply • 04 Mar 2015

  • Eremococcus turbinata

    09 Apr 2013-38.0,145.4Leuba Ridgway

    A lobulated gall probably involving terminal leaf buds. the galls were green and red and glossy. they were small, about 5 to 7mm wide. A dissected dry gall ( pics 4 & 5) showed thickened concentric layers of tissue. There was no sign of any life inside the gall. Spotted on a prickly tea-tree (Leptospermum juniperinum). This gall is formed by a scale insect of the genus Eremococcus. My thanks to L.Cook for the ID.

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    1. David Francis  Name added. (Hemiptera:Eriococcidae:Eremococcus turbinata)

      Reply • 03 Mar 2015

  • Unidentified

    09 Feb 2015-37.7,145.7Leuba Ridgway

    Mountain Hickory Wattle Leaf Gall Several leaves of this young acacia shrub had circular to oval patches of thickened, firm, raised growths with brown encrustation on their pale convex surfaces (pics 1 to 3). The growths were concave on the underside with a outer circle of similar brown crust (pic 4). These patches did not occur in any particular part of the leaf - some involved the mid vein and others anywhere on the leaf lamina. A dissection of one of these structures revealed just thick tough plant tissue. Spotted on young Mountain Hickory Wattle ( Acacia obliquinervia) shrubs on Mt Donna Buang (1250 masl) Architect of gall unknown.

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  • Dasineura tomentosa

    03 Oct 2014-38.5,145.2Leuba Ridgway

    Looking very much like small Camellia flower buds, these pea-sized growths could easily be mistaken for flower buds on the tea tree. They were globose, had scaly bract like outer growth and layers of soft sheaths within. They did not appear to have stalks and were seen on branches between nodes. On cutting one of them open, I found at least two very small maggots at the base, not much over 1 mm in length. The inside of the gall was soft with white fibrous layers. Spotted on Coastal Tea Tree ( Leptospermum laevigatum)

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  • Eriococcidae spp. Eriococcid Scale Apiomorpha spp.

    18 Feb 2011Martin Lagerwey

    This gall forming scale bug (Apiomorpha munita, family = Eriococcidae) produces a chemical stimulant causing the plant to grow a protective cage. The smaller posterior structures are (empty) male galls. The dissection shows the adult female prisoner with reduced wings, legs, antennae etc.

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    1. Mark Ridgway  Apiomorpha munita ?

      Reply • 05 Mar 2015

      • Martin Lagerwey  Mark, that is bound to be right. I used the name eriococcidae which is the family name years ago before I understood what I was talking about. You are welcome to add the correct name. Here is a link to Lynn Cook whom I am certain that you know of, and her slideshow of 40 images of the species in this genus which you might not have found yet ... a great insight into her work. http://www.lyncook.org/Lyn_Cook/Apiomorpha.html

        Reply • 06 Mar 2015

        • Mark Ridgway  Yes I wish her book was as comprehensive as her website.

          Reply • 06 Mar 2015

        • Mark Ridgway  ps.. 'munita' not 'numita' you old tangle-fingers

          Reply • 06 Mar 2015

    2. Martin Lagerwey  Thanks Mark, I've corrected that. There's too many words in our language. Hey, you calling me old? :)

      Reply • 06 Mar 2015